Drug Abuse in Nigerian Adolescents: Patterns and Determinants among Senior Secondary School Students
Keywords:Drug Abuse, Adolescents, Drug Use Patterns, Secondary Schools Students
Background: Nigeria has on numerous occasions, been identified as a major node in the supply chain of abused drugs and substances on theAfrican continent.Adolescents living in Nigeria have especially been implicated and the prevalence of drug abuse is both high and on the rise among this population. The susceptibility of adolescents to pleasurable stimuli and peer-influence in habit formation makes them an important age-group in research of this nature that seeks to inform future initiatives towards reducing the prevalence and consequences of drug abuse.
Method: Secondary schools were randomly sampled within the Federal Capital Territory, and students in the senior secondary classes between the ages 13 and 18 were included in the study.Acrosssectional survey was conducted using self-administered questionnaires. The study tool was used to obtain demographic information and to collect data on the knowledge of the participants about drug abuse, their attitude towards drug abuse and its sufferers, and their practices pertaining to drug abuse.
Results: All the study participants had used drugs non-medically, but only 42% reported to have used psychoactive substances at one point or the other. The most commonly used drugs/substances include vitamin C, antibiotics, alcohol, caffeine products, and cigarettes. The participants showed a pattern of drug abuse that statistically correlated with their environmental exposure to drug abuse (characterized by the number and types of drugs they had witnessed being abused).
Conclusion: This study provides basis for more in-depth studies of the local/cultural contexts, socioeconomic and other demographic factors that may significantly contribute to the prevalence of drug abuse and modify its pattern, towards designing data-backed approaches to drug abuse prevention among Nigerian adolescents.
Sindelar JL and Fiellin DA (2001) Innovations in treatment for drug abuse: solutions to a public health problem. Annual Review of Public Health, 22, 249–272. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.22.1. 249
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, World Drug Report 2017 (ISBN: 978-92-1- 148291-1, eISBN: 978-92-1-060623-3, United Nations publication, Sales No. E.17.XI.6). The drug problem and organized crime, illicit financial flows, corruption and terrorism. U N O D C R e s e a r c h P u b l i c a t i o n N o . 5 . https://www.unodc.org/wdr2017/field/Booklet_5_NEX US.pdf
O'Malley SS, JaffeAJ, Chang G, Schottenfeld RS, Meyer RE, and Rounsaville B (1992) Naltrexone and coping skills therapy for alcohol dependence. A controlled study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4 9 ( 1 1 ) , 8 8 1 – 8 8 7 . https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1992.01820 110045007
Possi MK (2018) Effects of drug abuse on cognitive and social behaviours: A potential problem among youth in Tanzania. Utafiti Journal, 3(1). https://journals.udsm.ac.tz/index.php/uj/articl e/viewFile/1240/1137
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (2018) D r u g u s e i n N i g e r i a . U n i t e d Nations.https://www.unodc.org/documents/dat a - a n d - analysis/statistics/Drugs/Drug_Use_Survey_ Nigeria_2019_BOOK.pdf
Okafor IP (2019) Causes and Consequences of Drug Abuse among Youth in Kwara State, Nigeria. Canadian Journal of Family and Youth / Le Journal Canadien de Famille et de La Jeunesse, 12(1), 147–162. https://doi.org/10.29173/cjfy29495
Jatau AI, Sha'aban A, Gulma KA, Shitu Z, Khalid GM, Isa A, Wada AS, and Mustapha M (2021) The burden of drug abuse in nigeria: A scoping review of epidemiological studies and drug laws. Public Health R e v i e w s , 4 2 , 1 6 0 3 9 6 0 . https://doi.org/10.3389/phrs.2021.1603960
Emonena W (2005) Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Benin City, Nigeria. F a c u l t y o f P s y c h i a t r y . http://www.dissertation.npmcn.edu.ng/index. php/FMCPsych/article/view/1518
Abdulkarim AA, Mokuolu OA, and Adeniyi A (2005) Drug use among adolescents in Ilorin, Nigeria. T r o p i c a l D o c t o r , 3 5 ( 4 ) , 2 2 5 – 2 2 8 . https://doi.org/10.1258/00494750577493862 0
Erah FO and Omatseye AM (2017) Drug and Alcohol Abuse among Secondary School students in a rural community in South-South Nigeria. Annals of Medical and Surgical Practice, 2(2), 85–91. https://edonmajournal.com/pub/index.php/nm a/article/view/80
Yunusa U (2017) Determinants of Substance Abuse among Commercial Bus Drivers in Kano Metropolis, Kano State, Nigeria. American Journal of N u r s i n g S c i e n c e , 6 ( 2 ) , 1 2 5 . https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ajns.20170602.16
Obasanjo O (2014) Not Just in Transit: Drugs, The State and Society in West Africa. West Africa Commission on Drugs.
Nagai F, Nonaka R, and Satoh Hisashi Kamimura K (2007). The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. European Journal of Pharmacology, 5 5 9 ( 2 – 3 ) , 1 3 2 – 1 3 7 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.075
Lahey BB (1992) Psychology: an introduction. P s y c h o l o g y : A n I n t r o d u c t i o n . https://psycnet.apa.org/record/1991-99023- 000
Klantschnig G (2014) Histories of cannabis use and control in Nigeria, 1927–67. Drugs in Africa: History and Ethnographies of Use, Trade and Control, 2 2 3 – 2 2 4 . https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978 1137321916_4
Ikoh MU, Smah SO, Okwanya I, Clement UA, and Aposhi ZA (2019) Factors affecting entry into drug abuse among youths in lafia metropolis: implications on security. SAGE Open, 9(1), 215824401882342. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244018823428
Desa U (2015) United nations department of economic and social affairs, population division. world population prospects: The 2015 revision, key findings and advance tables. Online Edition UN DESA, New York.
Adesugba M, and Mavrotas G (2016) Youth employment, agricultural transformation, and rural labor dynamics in Nigeria. (Discussion Paper No. 1579). International Food Policy Research Institute ( I F P R I ) . https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2884934
Sturman DA, and Moghaddam B (2012) Striatum processes reward differently in adolescents versus adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(5), 1719–1724. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1114137109
Federal Ministry of Education (2016) Nigeria D i g e s t O f E d u c a t i o n S t a t i s t i c s . https://education.gov.ng/nigeria-digest-ofeducation- statistics/
Umukoro OL, Taiwo A, Maroh I, and Mofoluwake M (2016) Prevalence and patterns of drug abuse among students of tertiary institutions in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Int J Psychiatry, 1(1), 1 – 6 . https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309 549298_Prevalence_and_Pattern_of_Drug_A buse_among_students_of_tertiary_instiuition _students_in_Abeokuta_Ogun_state_Nigeria
Adelekan ML, and Odejide OA (1989) The reliability and validity of the WHO student drug-use questionnaire among Nigerian students. Drug and A l c o h o l D e p e n d e n c e , 2 4 ( 3 ) , 2 4 5 – 2 4 9 . https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-8716(89)90062- 8
Hernandez SH, and Nelson LS (2010) Prescription drug abuse: insight into the epidemic. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 88(3), 307– 17.https://doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2010.154
Girotto E, MesasAE, deAndrade SM, and Birolim MM (2014) Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: A systematic review. Occupational and E n v i r o n m e n t a l M e d i c i n e , 7 1 ( 1 ) , 7 1 – 7 6 . https://doi.org/10.1136/oemed-2013-101452
Florence OA, Beatrice O, Okpala PU, and Oghale O (2016) Prevalence of drug abuse amongst university students in Benin City, Nigeria. Public Health Research, 6 ( 2 ) , 3 1 – 3 7 . http://dx.doi.org/10.5923/j.phr.20160602.01
Osa-Edoh GI, and Egbochukwu EO (2012) Classification of Frequency Abused Drugs amongst Nigerian Youth and the Social Influences: Implications for Counselling. AFRREV STECH: An International J o u r n a l o f S c i e n c e a n d T e c h n o l o g y . https://www.ajol.info/index.php/stech/article/ view/108181
Kendler KS, Sundquist K, Ohlsson H, Palmér K, Maes H, Winkleby MA, and Sundquist J (2012) Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: a national Swedish adoption study. Archives o f G e n e r a l P s y c h i a t r y , 6 9 ( 7 ) , 6 9 0 – 6 9 7 . https://doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.20 11.2112
DanrakaA, Orakwelu S, and Onavbavba G (2021) Assessment of community pharmacists' involvement in the rehabilitation of drug abuse victims in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria. International Journal of Health and Medical Sciences, 71, 1–5. hƩps://doi.org/10.32861/ijhms.71.1.5
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.