An Evaluation Of Community Pharmacists’ Involvement In The Delivery Of Public Health Services
Keywords:Public health, Community, Pharmacy, Practices
Introduction: Public health aims at assuring conditions in which people can be healthy. The relationship between public health and pharmacy, at the provider or “micro” level of practice, creates direct patient specific interventions for improving community health status. This study evaluated the public health activities carried out in community pharmacies located in four local government areas of Lagos State, Nigeria.
Method: This study was a cross- sectional and prospective survey of 100 community pharmacies conveniently selected in four Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Pretested and validated questionnaires were distributed to the pharmacists. The questionnaires addressed 8 pharmaceutical public health roles identified for pharmacists. Data collected were analysed using SPSS statistical package, version 17.0. Frequencies, percentages, medians and standard deviations were determined. Inferential statistics was carried out using Mann-Whitney U test.
Results: About a half (53.3%) of the respondents were males; majority (92.2%) had only the B. Pharm degree qualification. Data showed that, in both high and medium brow areas, an average of 70% of respondents provided the public health services. Respectively, 86.7% and 97.7% provided self-care services in medium and highbrow areas, representing the most prevalent activity; this is closely followed by counselling on how medicines work – medium brow (84.4%) and high-brow (88.6%); >60% provided leaflets on hypertension, diabetes and sexually transmitted infections. Regarding quality of care, general lifestyle advice, hypertension, asthma, and STIs scored highest. Majority (74%) of the pharmacists always referred the patient to the doctor when presenting with symptoms beyond their control.
Conclusion: The study revealed a significant involvement of community pharmacists in the provision of public health services in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Bush P and Johnson K (1979). Where is the public health pharmacist? Am. J. Pharm. Edu; 43,249-2S2.
Moore S (1999). Pharmacy in Public health arena. The Carolina Journal of Pharmacy. Available at http://www.hhs.gov/pharmacy/phpharm/pub4.html Accessed on May 2010
Capper SA and Sands CS (2006). The Vital Relationship between Public Health and Pharmacy. Int J Pharm Educ. 3(2). http://www.samford.edu/schools/pharmacy/Ijipe/206/caper.pdf Accessed on 13th May 2009.
The Role of the Pharmacist in Public Health Date: Nov 08 2006 The American Public Health Association, https://www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public-health-policy-statements/policy-database/2014/07/07/13/05/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-public-health
Meyerson BE, Ryder P T, Richey-Smith C (2013). Achieving Pharmacy-Based Public Health: A Call for Public Health Engagement Public Health Reports / May–June / Volume 128
Eades CE, Ferguson JS, O’Carroll RE (2011). Public health in community pharmacy: A systematic review of pharmacist and consumer views BMC Public Health; 11:582 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/11/582
Smith M (2014). Pharmacists’ Role in Public and Population Health. Ann Public Health Res 2; 1(2): 1006
Erku DA, Mersha AG (2017). Involvement of community pharmacists in public health priorities: A multi-center descriptive survey in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE 12(7): e0180943. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0180943
WHO (1994). The Role of the Pharmacist in the Health Care System http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Jh2995e/1.6.2.html
Jones C, Armstrong M, King M, Pruce D (2004). How pharmacy can help public health, The Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol 272. p672 | URI: 10997055 http://www.pharmaceutical-journal.com/news-and-analysis/features/how-pharmacy-can-help-public-health/10997055.article
Department of Health (2005). Choosing health through pharmacy 2005-2015; A programme for pharmaceutical public health. Available at: Accessed 10/9/2015
Manolakis PG, Skelton JB (2010). Pharmacists’ Contributions to Primary Care in the United States Collaborating to Address Unmet Patient Care Needs: The Emerging Role for Pharmacists to Address the Shortage of Primary Care Provider . American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 74 (10) Article S7.
Anderson S (2007). Community pharmacy and public health in Great Britain, 1936 to 2006: how a phoenix rose from the ashes. J of Epidemiol. Community health; 61 http://jech.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/61/10/844 Accessed January 2008
Eniojukan JF, Adeniyi A (1997). Community Pharmacists and primary healthcare programme. Nig J Pharm 28(2): 21 – 24.
Oparah AC and Arigbe-Osula EM (2000). Evaluation of Community Pharmacists’ Involvement in Primary Health Care Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 1 (2): 67-74
World Health Organization (1994). The role of pharmacists in support of the WHO Revised Drug Strategy. World Health Assembly Resolution 47.12.
American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (1997). ASHP guidelines on pharmacist-conducted patient education and counseling. Am J HealthSyst Pharm. 54:431–4
Pilnick A (2003). Patient counselling by pharmacists: four approaches to the delivery of counselling sequences and their interactional reception. Soc Sci Med.56(4):835-49.
Adepu R, Nagavi1 BG (2009). Attitudes and Behaviors of Practicing Community Pharmacists Towards Patient Counselling Indian J Pharm Sci. May-Jun; 71(3): 285–289
Kotecki JE, Elanjian SI and Torabi MR (2000). Health promotion beliefs and practices among pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 40 (6): 773-779.
Gilchrist A (2015). Pharmacy Leaflets Overlooked as Potential Patient Education Tools. Pharmacy Times December 01.
Offu O , Anetoh M , Okonta M and Ekwunife O (2015). Engaging Nigerian community pharmacists in public health programs: assessment of their knowledge, attitude and practice in Enugu metropolis Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice 8:27 DOI 10.1186/s40545-015-0048-0
Gelayee DA, Mekonnen GB, and Atnafe SA (2017). Practice and Barriers towards Provision of Health Promotion Services among Community Pharmacists in Gondar, Northwest Ethiopia. BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, Article ID 7873951, 6 pages, 2017. doi:10.1155/2017/7873951
Gezawa ID, Musa BM, Mijinyawa MS, Talle MA, Shehu YM, Uloko AE, Watila M M, Musa B M (2014). Prevalence of hypertension and its relationship with indices of obesity in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. Niger J Basic Clin Sci.11:67-71
Isara AR and Okundia PO (2015). The burden of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in rural communities in southern Nigeria Pan African Medical Journal 20:103 doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.20.103.5619
Snella KA, Canales AE, Irons BK, Sleeper-Irons RB, Villarreal MC, Levi- Derrick VE, Greene RS, Jolly JL, Nelson AA (2006). Pharmacy- and community based screenings for diabetes and cardiovascular conditions in high-risk individuals. J Am Pharm Assoc. 46:370–377.
Fawibe AE and Shittu AO (2011). Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smokers among undergraduates of the University of Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract.14:201-5.
Nwadike VU, Olusanya O, Anaedobe GC, Kalu I, Ojide KC (2015). Patterns of sexually transmitted infections in patients presenting in special treatment clinic in Ibadan south western Nigeria The Pan African Medical Journal 21:222. doi:10.11604/pamj.2015.21.222.6056
Liekweg A, Westfeld M, Braun M, et al (2012). Pharmaceutical care for patients with breast and ovarian cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer 20(11):2669-2677. doi:10.1007/s00520-012-1385-z.
Curley LE, Moody J, Gobarani R, Aspden T, Jensen M, McDonald M, Shaw J and Sheridan J (2016). Is there potential for the future provision of triage services in community pharmacy? Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice 9:29. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-016-0080-8