Multipurpose prevention technologies: Determination of an interest in its use for STI and contraception by Nigerian women


  • Arinola E. Joda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos
  • Abiodun Akapo Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos
  • Chinonyelum S. Ilomuanya Department of Medicine and Surgery, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bowen University, Iwo, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Deborah A. Ogundemuren Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos
  • Peace Ofonabasi-Bassey Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos
  • Margaret Ilomuanya Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos



Contraception, STI Prevention, Nigerian Women, Technologies (MPT), Multipurpose Prevention


Introduction: Multipurpose preventive technologies (MPTs) have the potential to address sexual and reproductive health requirements by concurrently protecting against HIV and unplanned pregnancy in a single product. The recognized lack of provision and knowledge of MPTs and contraceptives in general among Nigerian women between the ages 15-49 plays a large role in the occurrence of unintended pregnancies, its concurrent mismanagement, and the contraction and inefficient handling of HIVand other STI's.

Method: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted using Google Forms® distributed to the prospective respondents via WhatsApp platform across all geopolitical zones in Nigeria. Sexually active women (n = 393) currently residing in Nigeria were enrolled into the study following informed consent. Interest in MPT's was evaluated using descriptive analysis with the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants as a factor.

Results: Only 36% of the women had heard of MPTs prior to the study however, 86% of them expressed interest in the use of technologies that will protect them from unintended pregnancies and STIs including HIV. Income category and prior knowledge of MPTs were the only factors significantly linked to interest in MPTs. Other sociodemographic factors did not have much bearing on the interest in MPTs.

Conclusion: Given the diversity of women's tastes and their evolving needs in terms of sexual and reproductive health throughout their lives, choice is crucial when it comes to the provision of HIV and pregnancy prevention products. This study shows that the majority of the sexually active women in Nigeria are interested in MPTs. Women who have had their desired number of children and sexually active unmarried women who are at risk of contraction of STIs are interested in MPTs. Affordable pricing is crucial in sparking interest in its use so the pricing should be within an affordable range, as the data shows that the majority of the women are middle-income earners.


FDA PEPFAR 'Large National Survey Shows Smaller HIV Epidemic in Nigeria Than Once Thought and Highlights Key Gaps Toward

Reaching HIV Epidemic Control' [Accessed April 2019]

Gant Z, Hess K, Johnson AS, Hu X, Li J, Wu B, Guo X, Zhu H, Liu Y, Morgan M, Friend M, Chen M, Wilmore S, Gerstle J, Ren S, Price J,

Hall I, Green T, Crenshaw K (2014). Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2014 HIV Surveillance Report

Vol. 26; 2014.

Karim SA, Baxter C, Frohlich J, Karim QA. The need for multipurpose prevention technologies in sub-Saharan Africa. BJOG. 2014 Oct;121 Suppl 5:27–34.

Hynes JS, Sales JM, Sheth AN, Lathrop E, Haddad LB. Interest in multipurpose prevention technologies to prevent HIV/STIs and unintended pregnancy among young women in the United States. Contraception. 2018 Mar; 97(3):277-284. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2017.10.006. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Young Holt B, van der Straten A, Barker T, Chirenje ZM, Cameron AI, Scott C, Casas CP, Romano J. Strategic actions to advance

multipurpose prevention technologies in low- and middle-income countries. Front Reprod Health. 2023 Jul 3; 5: 1150857. doi:

3389/frph. 2023. 1150857.

Ganatra B, Gerdts C, Rossier C, Johnson BR Jr, Tunçalp Ö, Assifi A, Sedgh G, Singh S, Bankole A, Popinchalk A, Bearak J, Kang Z, Alkema L.

Global, regional, and subregional classification of abortions by safety, 2010-14: estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model. Lancet. 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2372-2381. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31794-4. Epub 2017 Sep 27. Erratum in: Lancet. 2017 Nov 5;390(10110):2346.

Sedgh G, Bankole A, Oye-Adeniran B, Adewole IF, Singh S, Hussain R. Unwanted pregnancy and associated factors among Nigerian women. Int Fam Plan Perspect. 2006 Dec;32(4):175-84. doi: 10.1363/3217506.

Asuquo EO, Orazulike NC, Onyekwere EC, Ekenobi AA, Erherhe JK and Orage JN. Unintended Pregnancy among Married Antenatal

Clinic Attendees in a Tertiary Institution in Nigeria. Br J Med Med Res 2017;19:1–11

Fisher B, Naidoo R. The Geography of Gender Inequality. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 1; 11(3): e0145778. doi:


Federal Ministry of Health (Nigeria). National Human Resources for Health Policy. 2017. Available at: Accessed th 29 January 2022

WHO, Safe Abortion. Technical and Policy Guidance for Health Systems. 2nd edition. Geneva: Switzerland: World Health Organization,

El-Sahn M, Lucas J, Aikenheada N, Nemadeb R and Van Dammea L. (n.d.). Understanding the Potential for Multipurpose Prevention of

Pregnancy and HIV: Results from surveys assessing four hypothetical concept profiles of Multipurpose Prevention Technologies (MPTs) in

Uganda, Nigeria and South Africa. Available at: th. Accessed 29 January 2022

Guttmacher Institute Fact Sheet 2019 Adding It Up: Investing in Contraception and Maternal and Newborn Health in Nigeria, 2018 | Guttmacher Institute

Family Planning 2020, Nigeria, 2018,

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2018 - Summary Report [SR264] (

Ilomuanya MO, Hameedat AT, Akang EN, Ekama SO, Silva BO, Akanmu AS. Development and evaluation of mucoadhesive bigel containing tenofovir and maraviroc for HIV prophylaxis. Futur J Pharm Sci. 2020;6(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s43094-020-00093-3. Epub 2020 Nov

Daniels K, Daugherty J, Jones J and Mosher W. Current Contraceptive Use and Variation by Selected Characteristics Among Women Aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013. Natl Health Stat Report. 2015(86):1-14.

Auerbach JD, Kinsky S, Brown G and Charles V. Knowledge, attitudes, and likelihood of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use among S

women at risk of acquiring HIV. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015;29(2):102-110.

Whiteside YO, Harris T, Scanlon C, Clarkson S and Duffus W. Self-perceived risk of HIV infection and attitudes about preexposure

prophylaxis among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in South Carolina. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011;25(6):365-370

Woodsong C, Musara P, Chandipwisa A, Montgomery E, Alleman P, Chirenje M, Chipato T, Martinson F, Hoffman I. Interest in

multipurpose prevention of HIV and pregnancy: perspectives of women, men, health professionals and community stakeholders in two vaginal gel studies in southern Africa. BJOG 2014; 121 (Suppl. 5): 45–52.

Okoye NV and Gbemisola A. Family Planning Knowledge and Practices in Two Communities in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Basic and Social Pharmacy Research, 2020;1(4):1-12.

Joda AE and Balogun AO. Contraceptive Knowledge and Practice: A Survey of Tertiary Institution Students in Lagos, Nigeria. Nigerian

Journal of Pharmacy. 2015;49(1):62-68

Onyeiwu, S. Nigeria's poverty profile is grim. It's time to move beyond handouts. The Conversation. Retrieved October 25, 2021, from

Nkomo S, Makoni W, Shapley-Quinn MK, Luecke E, Mbatsane E, Manenzhe K, Ahmed K, Johnson LM, Mahaka I, van der Straten A.

Prospective Acceptability of a Multipurpose Technology (MPT) Implant in Preclinical Development to Prevent HIV and Unplanned

Pregnancy: Qualitative Insights from Women End Users and Health Care Providers in South Africa and Zimbabwe. PLoS One 2023, 18 (5 MAY).

Bhushan NL, Ridgeway K, Luecke EH, PalaneePhillips T, Montgomery ET, Minnis AM. Synthesis of End-User Research to Inform Future Multipurpose Prevention Technologies in SubSaharan Africa: A Scoping Review. Frontiers in Reproductive Health. Frontiers Media S.A. 2023.

Walker KW. Perception of Multipurpose Prevention Technologies Aimeda t HIV/STI/Unintended Pregnancy Among African

American Women in the Deep South. 2023.

Friedland BA, Plagianos M, Savel C, Kallianes V, Martinez C, Begg L, Guthrie K M, Venkatasetty D, Pickett J, Haddad LB.

Women Want Choices: Opinions from the Share.Learn.Shape Global Internet Survey About Multipurpose Prevention Technology (MPT)

Products in Development. AIDS Behav 2023, 27 (7), 2190–2204.

Bassey-Akamune F.U., Ilomuanya M.O. (2017) Short term Medical Mission: Serving the underserved patients in South southern Nigeria. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology 9(2): 24-30




How to Cite

Joda, A. E., Akapo, A., Ilomuanya, C. S., Ogundemuren, D. A., Ofonabasi-Bassey, P., & Ilomuanya, M. (2024). Multipurpose prevention technologies: Determination of an interest in its use for STI and contraception by Nigerian women. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 58(1), 111–120.