Main Article Content
Background: Providing all citizens with fair and equitable access to healthcare remains one of the most challenging issues facing most African countries today. The health indices of the Sub-Saharan Africa show how much it is lacking in managing and properly funding its health sector. The rates of maternal and newborn mortality continue to be the highest and the lowest life expectancy on a global scale. Millions of Africans continue to perish from diseases that are treatable and avoidable, including such as viral diarrhea and malaria. In the last few decades, novel drug delivery technologies have emerged and evolved into various drug delivery systems with various drug release mechanisms. This has altered the way individuals now access medications. Presently, several creative approaches, based on partnerships, intellectual property, and technology are used to stimulate innovation, promote healthcare delivery, and reduce global health disparities. The purpose of this study is to review the Medicine Security in Sub-Saharan Africa and proffer recommendations on how access to drugs can be improved via utilization of novel technologies.
Method: A review of the Medicine Security in Sub-Saharan Africa was focused on underlining novel technologies that will improve access to drug.
Result: Recommendations were suggested to improve drug access via novel technologies in SubSaharanAfrica.
Conclusion: Making sure that patients have timely and affordable access to safe and effective medicines, stimulating innovation by providing incentives for research that will lead to innovative medicines that effectively target real therapeutic needs, and safeguarding sustainability by developing the mechanisms to purchase these medicines at affordable prices in order to protect the
sustainability of pharmaceutical budgets are essential to improving access to drugs within SubSaharan Africa.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
NAFDAC 2018: Imperatives for National Drug Security. Available from: Imperatives –For National Drug Security NAFDAC. Accessed
May 5, 2022.
Tefo P, 2017: Dying from lack of medicine. African Renewal. Available from: Dying from lack of medicines | Africa Renewal (un.org).
Accessed May 16, 2022.
Conway M, Holt T, Sabow A, Yuan sun I. 2019. Should Sub-Saharan Africa Make Its Own Drugs. Available from: Evaluating the sub-Saharan African pharmaceutical market | McKinsey. Accessed May 19, 2022.
Americares 2022: M e d i c i n e security. Available from: https://www.americares.org/what-we-do/medicine-security/. Accessed May 5, 2022.
U.S FDA 2021: Facts About the Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) Available from: Facts About the Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMPs) | FDA. Accessed July 13, 2022.
Pharma Approach 2021: Pharmaceutical Industries in Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects. Available from: Pharmaceutical Industries in
Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects (pharmapproach.com).Accessed June 24, 2022.
Further Africa 2021: Africa's shot at local pharma production. Available f r o m : https://furtherafrica.com/2021/06/21/africasshot-at-local-pharma-production/amp/. Accessible June 6, 2022.
Sylvester 2015: Shortage of Medical Personnel: Tough Times Ahead For Nigerians 2015 Feb 3; Available from: Shortage of medical personnel: Tougher times ahead for Nigerians « Daily News 9ja - The Nigerian Largest Online Symposium.
Dimitra P, Suzanne E. (2018) Policy Brief, in Richardson E, Palm W. (Eds) Ensuring access to medicines: How to Stimulate Innovation to Meet Patients' Needs?. UN City: WHO Regional Office for Europe, PP. 1-2.
George M, 2018: Sub Saharan Africa Growth to Rise 3.1% in 2018. Eagle Online. 2018 April 18; Available from: Sub SaharanAfrica growth to rise 3.1 percent in 2018 - report - Eagle Online.
WHO 2019: Maternal Mortality: World Health Organization. Available from: WHO-RHR- 19.20-eng.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2022.
Glauser W. (2018) Blood-delivering dronessaving lives in Africa and maybe soon in Canada, Canadian Medical A s s o c i a t i o n
Journal, 1 9 0 ( 3 ) : E 8 8 - E 8 9 . https://doi.org/10.1503%2Fcmaj.109-5541.
Cyril 2021: zipline begins medical drone delivery to health facilities in kaduna. the Sun News. 2021 Aug 6; Available from: Zipline begins medical drone delivery to health facilities in –Kaduna The Sun Nigeria (sunnewsonline.com)
Tucker J. 2022: Drones in health care. Available from: Drones in HealthCare. Accessed Aug 8, 2022.
Public Health Nigeria 2021: List of Major Pharmaceutical Companies in Nigeria. Available from: List Of Major Pharmaceutical Companies in Nigeria - Public Health. Accessed June 24, 2022.
Ogbonna BO, (2016) National Drug Distribution in Nigeria; Implications for the Goals of National Drug Policy, European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research, 3(1): 1-4. Accessed July 14, 2022.
Muanya C. 2020. Strengthening pharmaceutical research, development in Nigeria. The Guardian News . 2020 May 28; Available from:
Strengthening pharmaceutical research, ——development in Nigeria | The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News Features
–The Guardian Nigeria News Nigeria and World News.
Iwelunmor P. 2021. Ebonyi Agog as NAIP, Bloom Public Health unveil Pharmacity. Pharmanews. 2021 Feb 4; Available from:
Alo 2021. Gov. Umahi lays the foundation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company in Ebonyi. Opera news. Available from: Gov.
Umahi Lays The Foundation Of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company in Ebonyi - Opera News.AccessedAugust 30, 2022.
Femi A. 2019. Nigeria, Others Spend $14 Billion Importing Pharmaceutical Products. The Guardian News. 2019 Feb 13; Available from:
Nigeria, others spend $14 billion —importing pharmaceutical products | The Guardian Nigeria News - Nigeria and World News –Business
The Guardian Nigeria News Nigeria and World News.
Ahmad S, Saja AF, Janvier G, Kazi J, Sungsoo C, Adel A. (2020) Enhancing Research and Development in the Health Sciences as a Strategy to Establish a Knowledge-Based Economy in the State of Kuwait: A Call for Action, Health care, 8(3):264.Accessed May 19, 2022.
Kopcha M, 2016: Modernizing PharmaceuticalManufacturing to Improve Drug Quality: Ensuring a Safe and Adequate Supply of Drugs.
Pharmaceutical Processing World. Available f r o m : https://www.pharmaceuticalprocessingworld.com/author/michael-kopcha-phd-rph-fda-voi/. Accessed May 18, 2022.
Emzor Pharmaceuticals 2022. Available from: Leading Pharmaceutical Company in Nigeria - Emzor (emzorpharma.com) Accessed July 17, 2022.
Pharmapproach 2022: Pharmaceutical machines: operational principles, uses, advantages Available from: Pharmaceutical Machines:
Operational principles, Uses, advantages (pharmapproach.com).Accessed July 17 2022.
Adam J, 2020: Using Technology to Improve Medication Access and Impact More Patients. Drug Channels. Available from: Drug Channels: Using Technology to Improve MedicationAccess and Impact More Patients. Accessed May 18, 2022.
Paul T, Joel W, Gregory W. Daniel, 2013: Can Smartphones Help Improve Access to Medications. Available from: Can Smartphones
Help Improve Access To Medications? (brookings.edu).Accessed May 18, 2022
Omidosu A, Sinaga H, Minderman M, TIAS School for Business and Society 2022:Advantage Health Africa: Quality Drugs at Your Fingertips. Available from:AIM2Flourish | Advantage Health Africa: Quality Drugs at Your… Accessed June 27, 2022.
Folarin O. 2015: Top Seven Medical Apps in Africa. Available from: Top 7 medical apps in Africa | Pulse Ghana.Accessed May 18, 2022.
Ikpeme N. 2016: 20 Startups to Know in The Nigerian Health Tech Space. Digital Health Nigeria. 2016 June 20; Available from: 20
Startups To Know In The Nigerian HealthTech Space | by Ikpeme Neto | Digital Health Nigeria | Medium.
CDC 2019: Telehealth and Telemedicine: A Research Anthology of Law and Policy Resources. Available from: CDC | Public Health
L a w A n t h o l o g i e s : Te l e h e a l t h a n d Telemedicine.Accessed May 24, 2022.
Adepoju P. (2020). Africa Turns to Telemedicine to Close Mental Health Gap. The Lancet Digital Health, 2(11): e571–e572. Accessed May 24, 2022.
Balme K, Stephen C, Curling L, Mohamed F, Du Plessis C, Marks C, Pillay-Fuentes Lorente V, Van Rensburg R, Voigt G. (2020) The Economics of Poisoning: The Role of Telemedicine and Toxicovigilance, South African Medical Journal,110(12):1152.Accessed May 24, 2022.
Itai C, Elliot M, Malizgani M, Mathias D. (2021) Utility of Telemedicine in Sub‐Saharan Africa During the COVID‐19 Pandemic. A Rapid
Review, Human behavior and Emerging T e c h n o l o g i e s , 3 ( 2 ) : 1 - 1 1 . http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbe2.297.
WHO 2018: Substandard and Falsified Medical Products. World Health Organization. Available from: Substandard and falsified medical products (who.int).Accessed July 15, 2022.
NAFDAC 2017: Mobile Authentication Service ( M A S ) . A v a i l a b l e f r o m : h t t p s : / / w w w . n a f d a c . g o v . n g / o u r -
services/pharmacovigilance-post-marketsurveillance/mobile-authentication-serv cemas/.Accessed June 28, 2022.
Linda, L. (2015) Infrastructure – The Key to Healthcare Improvement, Future Healthcare J o u r n a l , 2 ( 1 ) : 4 - 7 .
African Development Bank Group 2021: Strategy for Quality Health Infrastructure in Africa 2021-2030. Available from: Strategy for
quality health infrastructure in Africa 2021-2030 | African Development Bank - Building today, a better Africa tomorrow (afdb.org). Accessed July 15, 2022