Alcohol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats: Protective Effects of Psidium guajava (Myrtacaea) Ethanol Leaf Extract



Psidium guajava, chronic alcohol consumption, male factor infertility, male reproductive parameters


Background: Alcohol is a known male reproductive toxicant, while Psidum quajava is a potent male fertility enhancer with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at determining the possible ameliorative effect of the ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava against alcohol-induced repro-toxicity in male rats.

Methods: The study was an in-vivo designed investigation wherein group 1 animals served as the negative control group and received 2 mL of distilled water following ethanol administration.Animals in groups 2, 3, and 4 received 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of ethanol leaf extract (ELE) of P. guajava respectively. Group 5 animals served as the positive control and were administered 50 mg/kg Vitamin C. All administrations were par oral and lasted for 21 days. Animals were sacrificed after an overnight fast and blood collected from animals was analyzed for serum concentration of testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Equally, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant enzyme as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) serum levels were determined. Sperm analysis and histological evaluation were performed on the semen and testes respectively. GC-MS analysis of the extract was carried out to identify compounds present in it.

Results There was a dose dependent and significant (p<0.001) increase in serum levels of testosterone and FSH in 100 mg/kg treated rats. Serum levels of SOD and GPx were significantly (p<0.0001) increased while a decrease in levels of MDA was observed in the 200 mg/kg extract treated group. A dose independent increase in normal sperm forms and progressive motility respectively were recorded in all extract treated and positive control groups. Animals in treatment groups had leydig cell regeneration and normal sequential maturation. Sixty-seven compounds were identified in the extract with β - caryophyllene having the highest relative abundance (18.67%).

Conclusion: Ethanolic leaf extract of P. guajava has potential ameliorative effects against ethanolinduced repro-toxicity in male rats.


Bak CW, Seok HH, Song SH, Kim ES, HerYS and Yoon TK (2012) Hormonal imbalances and psychological scars left behind in infertile men. Journal ofAndrology 33: 181–189.

Slade P, O'Neill C, Simpson AJ and Lashen H (2009) The relationship between perceived stigma, disclosure patterns, support and distress in new attendees at an infertility clinic. Human Reproduction 22: 2309–17.

Wu AK, Elliott P, Katz PP and Smith JF (2013) Time costs of fertility care: the hidden hardship of building a family. Fertility and Sterility 99: 2025–30.

Kumar N and Singh AK (2015) Trends of male factor infertility, an important cause of infertility: A review of literature. Journal of Human Reproductive S c i e n c e s 8 ( 4 ) : 1 9 1 – 1 9 6 . hƩps://

Okonofua FE, Ntoimo LFC, Omonkhua A, Ayodeji O, Olafusi C, Unuabonah and Ohenhen V (2022) Causes and Risk Factors for Male Infertility: A Scoping Review of Published Studies. International Journal of General Medicine 15: 5 9 8 5 – 5 9 9 7 . hƩps://

Sansone A, Di Dato C, de Angelis C, Menafra, D, PIozza C, Pivonello R., Isidori A, and Gianfri D (2018) Smoke, alcohol and drug addiction and male fertility. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology (16) 3: 20 -27. 0320-7

Emanuele MA and Emanuele NV (1998) Alcohol's effects on male reproduction. Alcohol Health Research World 22:195-218.

Tvrdá E, Kňažická Z, Bárdos L, Massányi P and Lukáč N (2011) Impact of oxidative stress on male fertility - a review. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 59(4): 4 6 5 – 4 8 4 . hƩps://

World Health Organization (2018). Global Status R e p o r t o n A l c o h o l a n d H e a l t h 2 0 1 8 . detailredirect/9789241565639 accessed 16April 2023.

de Lazlo H and Henshaw PS (1954) Plant materials used by primitive people to affect fertility. Science 119:626–31.

Joseph B and Priya RM (2011) Phytochemical and biopharmaceutical aspects of Psidium guajava (L.) essential oil: a review. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant 5(4):432–442.

Yana LY, Teng LT, Jing T and Jhi TJ (2006) Antioxidant Properties of Guava Fruit: Comparison with Some Local Fruits. Sunway Academic Journal 3: 9– 20.

Nair R and Chanda S (2007) In-vitro antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. Leaf extracts against clinically important pathogenic microbial strains, Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 38: 452- 458.

Gupta P and Birdi T (2015) Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 6(1): 50 -52. hƩps://

Ojewole JA, Awe EO and Chiwororo WD (2008) Antidiarrhoeal activity of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract in rodents. Journal of Smooth Muscle Research 44(6): 195–207. hƩps://

Ojewole JA (2005) Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract. Methods and Findings in Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology 2 7 ( 1 0 ) : 6 8 9 – 6 9 5 . hƩps:// 7.

Manosroi J, Dhumtanom Pand ManosroiA(2005) Anti-proliferative activity of essential oil extracted from Thai medicinal plants on KB and P388 cell lines. Cancer Letters 235(1):114-120. doi: 10.1016/j.canlet.2005.04.021. Epub 2005 Jun 23. PMID: 15979235.

Qian H and Nihorimbere V (2004) Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf. Journal of Zhejiang University Science 5 ( 6 ) : 6 7 6 – 6 8 3 . hƩps://

Akinola OB, Oladosu OS and Dosumu OO (2007) Ethanol extract of the leaves of Psidium guajava Linn enhances sperm output in healthy Wistar rats.African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 36(2): 137–140

N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f H e a l t h ( N I H ) . 12th November 2021.

Ofeimun JO,Ayinde BA, Eze GI (2021) Methanol Root Extract of Rhaphiostylis beninensis Planch Ex Benth (Icacinaceae) Reverses Alcohol-induced Changes in Sex Hormones and Semen Quality in Male Rats East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 24: 50-56.

Hadwan MH. New method for assessment of serum catalase activity. Indian J Sci Technol. 2016; 9:1–5.

Seed J, Chapin RE, Clegg ED, Dostal LA, Foote RH, Hurtt ME, Klinefelter, GR, Makris SL, Perreault SD, Schrader S, Seyler D, Sprando R, Treinen KA, Veeramachaneni N and Wise LD (1996) Methods for assessing sperm motility, morphology, and counts in the rat, rabbit, and dog: a consensus report. ILSI Risk Science Institute Expert Working Group on Sperm Evaluation. Reproductive Toxicology 10(3): 237–244. hƩps:// 6238(96)00028-7.

World Health Organization (1999). Laboratory Manual for the examination and processing of human semen (5th ed). Geneva. p 6-9.

Drury RA and Wallington EA (1980). Carleton's Histological Technique. 5th edn. New York: Oxford University Press, 15 -23

Sadock VA (2005). Normal human sexuality and sexual dysfunction. In: Sadock BJ, Sadock VA (eds), Kaplan and Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 8thedn. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wikins, 127 – 143.

Dosumu O, Duru F, Osinubi A, Oremosu A and Noronha C (2010) Influence of virgin coconut oil (VCNO) on oxidative stress, serum testosterone and gonadotropic hormones (FSH, LH) in chronic ethanol ingestion. Agriculture Biology Journal of NorthAmerica 6:1126–1132.

Wagner H, Cheng JW and Ko EY (2017) Role of reactive oxygen species in male infertility: An updated review of literature.Arab Journal of Urology 1 6 ( 1 ) : 3 5 – 4 3 . hƩps://

George S and Chaturvedi P (2008) Protective role of Ocimum canum plant extract in alcohol-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. British Journal of B i o m e d i c a l S c i e n c e 6 5 ( 2 ) : 8 0 – 8 5 . hƩps:// 2802.

Sandro La V, Rosita AC, Enzo V, Dario T, Giuseppe M, Vincenzo F, Sebastiano C, Aldo EC (2013) Markers of semen inflammation: supplementary semen analysis. Journal of R e p r o d u c t i v e I m m u n o l o g y 1 0 0 ( 1 ) : 2 - 1 0 . hƩps://

Zini A and Al-Hathal N (2011). Antioxidant therapy in male infertility: fact or fiction? Asian J o u r n a l o f A n d r o l o g y. 1 3 ( 3 ) : 3 7 4 - 3 8 1 . hƩps://

Dohle GR, Smit M, Weber RF (2003) Androgens and male fertility. World Journal of Urology 21(5):341-355. hƩps:// 003- 0365-9

Weinbauer GF and Nieschlag E (1995) Gonadotrophin control of testicular germ cell development. Advanced Experimental Medicine and Biology 377:55-65 hƩps:// 1-4899-0952-7_4

Abeer F, Imad H and Mohanad K (2017) A Review: Uses of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Technique for Analysis of Bioactive Natural Compounds of Some Plants. International Journal of Toxicological and P h a r m a c o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h . 9 . hƩps://

Saad S, Dahham 1, Yasser M. Tabana 1, Iqbal MA, Ahamed MBK, Ezzat MO, Majid ASA and Amin MSA and Majid 1 (2015) The Anticancer, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Sesquiterpene β-Caryophyllene from the Essential Oil of Aquilaria crassna. Molecules 2015, 20, 11808- 1 1 8 2 9 ; hƩps://

Sharma C, Al Kaabi JM, Nurulain SM, Goyal SN, Kamal MA and Ojha S (2016) Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β- Caryophyllene: A Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise. Current pharmaceutical d e s i g n , 2 2 ( 2 1 ) : 3 2 3 7 – 3 2 6 4 . hƩps:// 11115226

Trivedi NP, Rawal UM and Patel BP (2007) Hepatoprotective Effect of Andrographolide Against Hexachlorocyclohexane-Induced Oxidative Injury. Integrative Cancer Therapies 6(3):271-280.

Santos CC, Salvadori MS, Mota VG, Costa LM, deAlmeidaAA, de Oliveira GA, Costa, J. P, de Sousa DP, de Freitas RM and de Almeida RN (2013) Antinociceptive and Antioxidant Activities of Phytol In Vivo and In Vitro Models. Neuroscience Journal 949452. hƩps://

de Moraes J, de Oliveira RN, Costa JP, Junior A, de Sousa DP, Freitas RM, Allegretti SM and Pinto PL (2014). Phytol, a diterpene alcohol from chlorophyll, as a drug against neglected tropical disease Schistosomiasis mansoni. PLoS neglected tropical diseases 8(1): e2617. Ʃps://




How to Cite

Ofeimun, J. O., Erhunwmunsee, R., Olawale, F., Idemudia, N. L., Machie, U., Evbuomwan, J., & Ikechi, E. G. (2023). Alcohol-Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats: Protective Effects of Psidium guajava (Myrtacaea) Ethanol Leaf Extract: The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 57(2), 653–665. Retrieved from