Thin Layer Chromatography Bio-autography guided identification of Antibacterial constituents of leaf extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. (Bignoniaceae)


  • Adeola A. Adegun Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Sunday A. Adesegun 1Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria.
  • Abdulrahman R. Usman Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria.


Traditional Medicine, Anti-microbial Susceptibility, Thin Layer Chromatography


Background: There is an incessant quest for the discovery of novel antibacterial agents. Stereospermum kunthianum Cham.  Bignoniaceae) is used in traditional medicine in Nigeria and other parts of Africa in the treatment of venereal diseases e.g., syphilis,  wounds, refractory cough, malaria, tooth ache leprosy etc. The present work investigates the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of the ethanolic leaf extract of the plant. 

Methods: Ethanolic leaf extract of S.Kunthianum was obtained by macerations method. Agar well diffffusion method was used to carry  out preliminary antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The test was carried out at extract concentration of 100, 200 and 400 mgmL-1 . The  agar dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts. Phytochemical screening  was conducted using standard procedures. Thin layer chromatography bioautography analysis was carried out using the agar overlay  method. Six micro-organisms including two gram positive- Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, two gram negative Salmonella  typhi , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two fungi, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were used as test organisms. 

Results: The ethanol extracts of S.kunthianum leaves showed antimicrobial activity against B.subtilisS.aureus and S.typhi with zones of  Inhibition ranging from 13±1.41 to 29.5 ± 1.00 mm and MIC values ranging from 16 -64 mgmL-1 . Phytochemical screening revealed the  presence of saponins, flflavonoids and terpenoid compounds 

Conclusion: The study showed that the antibacterial activities of the leaf extract are probably due to polyphenolic and steroidal  compounds.   

Author Biography

Adeola A. Adegun, Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Nigeria.




Omotayo, O., Oladipo, G.A., Adekunle, D.O., and Akinola, O.T. (2022). Phytochemical and antibacterial activity of Mangifera indica Linn. (Mango) bark and leaf extracts on bacteria isolated from domestic wastewater samples. African journal of Clinical and Experimental M i c r o b i o l o g y . 2 3 ( 1 ) : 7 3 - 8 2

Kin, A. Yaki, L. M., Abubakar, I.,O., Lucy and Zubairu, I.. (2018). Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum (scent leaf) on some pathogenic gastrointestinal bacteria. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 12. 923-929. hƩps://

Mohammad, A. (2012). Antimicrobial Potential of Azadirachta indica Against Pathogenic Bacteria and Fungi. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1(4) 1-

Ismail, M.C.A., Deris, Z.Z., Bakar, A.R. and Ismail, N. (2021). In Vitro Anti-Leptospiral Activity of Phyllanthus amarus Extracts and The ir Combina tions with Antibioti c s. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 18 (6): 2834.

Kumar, S.Y., Kulanthaivei, L., Hikku, G.S., Saravanan, R., Lakshmi, T., Kirubhanand, C., Karthikeyan, M., and Vijayalakshmi, P. (2021). Improved Antibacterial Activity of Water-Soluble Nanoformulated Kaempferol and Combrestatin Polyphenolic Compounds. International Journal of Polymer Sciences.

Mangalagiri, P.N., Panditi, K.S. and Jeevigunta, L.L.N. (2021). Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and their major components. Heliyon. 7 (4) e 0 6 8 3 5 . https//

Askoy, C.S., Avci, G.F., Ugurel, M.O., Atas, B., Sayar, N.A. and Akbulut, B.S. (2020). Potentiating the activity of berberine for Staphylococcus aureus in a combinatorial t r e a t m e n t w it h t h y m o l. M i c r o b i a l P a t h o g e n e s i s . 1 4 9 .

Aljedah, M.M (2022). Antimicrobial Resistance and its spread Is a Global Threat. Antibiotics 11: 1082. A v a i l a b l e a t :

WHO (2021). Antimicrobial resistance. Available at:

D'Andrea, M.M. , Fraziano, M., Thaller, M.C. and Rossolini, G.M. (2019). The Urgent Need for Novel Antimicrobial Agents and Strategies to Fight Antibiotic Resistance. Antibiotics (Basel).6;8(4):254. doi: 10.3390/

Tan, S.Y. and Tatsumura, Y. (2015) Alexander Fleming (1881–1955): Discoverer of penicillin. Singapore Medicinal Journal. 56: 366–367.

Gasparrini, A.J., Markley, J., Kumar, H., Wang, B., Fang, L., Irum, S., Symister, C.T., Wallace. M., Burnham, D.C., Andleeb, S., Tolia, N.H., Wencewicz, A.T. and Dantas, G. (2020). Tetracycline-inactivating enzymes from environmental, human commensal, and pathogenic bacteria cause broad-spectrum tetracycline resistance. Communications Biology 3(1) : (241).

Bandyopadhyay, S. and Samanta, I. (2020). Staphylococcus in Antimicrobial Resistance in Agriculture. Perspective, Policy and Mitigation, 2020: 195-215.

Lü, J., Long, Q., Zhao, Z., Chen, L., He, W., Hong, J., Liu, K., Wang, Y., Pang, X., Deng, Z., and Tao, M. (2020). Engineering the ErythromycinProducing Strain Saccharopolyspora erythraea HOE107 for the Heterologous Production of Po l y k e ti d e A n ti b i o ti c s. Fro n ti e rs i n M i c r o b i o l o g y .

Burkhill, H.M. (1985). Useful plants of West Tropical Africa (Vol. 1). Families A-D. Royal Botanical Gardens. Kew, England, Pp. 266-267

Aliyu, M. S., Hanwa, U. A., Tijjani, M. B.,Aliyu, A. B., and Ya'u, B. (2009). Phytochemical and ntibacterial Properties of Leaf Extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Bignoniaceae). Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science, 17(2):235-239.

Falodun, A., Qadir, I.M., Poh C. F., Omogbai, K. I and Choudh, M.I (2009). Bioactive Chemical Constituents of Stereospermum Kunthianum (Bi g n o n a c i a e ). Re s e a r c h J o u r n a l o f Phytochemistry, 3(2): 35-43.

Ching, F.P., Omogbai, E. k., Okpo, S.O. and Ozolua, R. I. (2009). Antiinflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Stereospermum kunthianum (Cham., Sandrine Petit) Stem Bark in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science.,71(1):106- 10.

Harborne, J.B. (1998) Textbook of Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 5th Edition, Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, 21-72.

Hugo, W.B. and Russ e l, A.D. (1998). Pharmaceutical microbiology,6th Edition, Osney, Mead, Oxford, London,. 242-244.

Choma, I. M. and Edyta, M.G. (2010). Bioautogr aphy de t e c tion in thin l aye r C h r o m a t o g r a p h y . J o u r n a l o f Chromatography.12:69.

WHO (2022). Report signals increasing resistance to antibiotics in bacterial infections in humans and n e e d f o r b e tt e r d a t a . Av a il a b l e a t report-signals-increasing-resistance-to- antibiotics-in-bacterial-infections-in- humansand-need-for-better-data

Jeremiah P., Malerich and Dirk, T. (2003). Biomimetic Synthesis of (±) Pinnatal and (±) Sterekunthal A.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(32):9554- 9555.

Abreu, C.A., McBain, A.J. and Simeos, M. (2012). Plants as sources of new antimicrobials and resistance-modifying agents. Natural Product Reports. 29: 1007-1021.

Emmanuella Iwuchukwu, Ignatius Anukwu, Margaret O. Ilomuanya (2022) Medicine Security in Sub-Saharan Africa: Improving Access to Drugs Via Utilization of Novel Technologies. Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy 56 (2):374-382




How to Cite

Adegun, A. A., Adesegun, S. A., & Usman, A. R. (2023). Thin Layer Chromatography Bio-autography guided identification of Antibacterial constituents of leaf extract of Stereospermum kunthianum Cham. (Bignoniaceae): The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 57(1), 582–591. Retrieved from

Most read articles by the same author(s)