Challenges To Documentation Among Community Pharmacists In Lagos State, Nigeria.

Main Article Content

Ngozika Okoye, V.
Bolajoko Aina, A.
Arinola Joda, A.


Introduction: Community pharmacists are reported to have poor documentation behaviour. The aim of this study was to identify challenges to documentation among community pharmacists in Lagos State.

Method: The study was descriptive. Five hundred and twelve community pharmacists were invited to a brainstorming session on challenges to documentation in community pharmacies through messages on the whatsapp platform of Association of Community Pharmacists of Nigeria, Lagos State. The 126 community pharmacists who came for the brainstorming session were selected for the study.The participants were asked to list in writing and discuss the challenges they encountered with documentation in their respective pharmacies and the measures they take to overcome such challenges. Data was analyzed thematically.

Results: The written responses of the participants were collated into four themes. The challenges to documentation were ascribed to human, facility, overwhelming issues and government factors by 51.6%, 48.4%, 37.3% and 9.5% of the participants, respectively.These challenges include inadequate staff, inadequate documentation materials and procedures, inadequate time and poor power supply. Measures to overcome these challenges were, similarly, directed at the staff, facility, overwhelming and government factors as reported by 35.7%, 22.2%, 21.7% and 12.7% of the participants, respectively. Participants reported that they would overcome these challenges by providing training for pharmacists, more time for interaction with patients, documentation materials, more delegation and alternative power supply.

Conclusion: Community pharmacists in the study reported that they were faced with many challenges that emanate from human, facility, overwhelming issues and government factors. Standard documentation protocol and tool would go a long way to alleviate challenges to documentation among community pharmacists in Lagos State.

Article Details

How to Cite
Okoye, V. , N., Aina, A. , B., & Joda, A., . A. (2019). Challenges To Documentation Among Community Pharmacists In Lagos State, Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 53(2). Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Ngozika Okoye, V. , Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy,

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos.

Bolajoko Aina, A. , Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy,

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos.

Arinola Joda, A., Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy,

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos.


Al-Jedai A and Nurgat ZA (2012). Electronic documentation of clinical pharmacy interventions. ResearchGate. August.

Al-jedai A and Nurgat ZA (2012). Electronic Documentation of Clinical Pharmacy Interventions in Hospitals. Data Mining Applications in Engineering and Medicine, Adem Karahoca, Intech Open, DOI: 10.5772/50425. Available from:

Ogbonna BO, Ejim CE, IkebudU CC, Uzodinma SU and Orji CE (2015). Pharmaceutical care and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria; grappling with the frontier. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research.2(7): 33-42

Chisholm MA,Vollenweider LJ, Mulloy LL, Wynn JJ,Wade WE and DiPiro JT (2004). Cost-benefit analysis of a clinical pharmacist-managed medication assistance program in a renal transplant clinic. Clinical Transplant. 14:304—10

Bond CA, Raehl CL, Franke T (2001). Interrelationships among mortality rates, drug costs, total cost of care, and length of stay in United States Hospitals: summary and recommendations for clinical pharmacy services and staffing. Pharmacotherapy 21:129—41.

Ghandi PJ, Smith BS and Tataronis GR (2001). Impact of a pharmacist on drug costs in a coronary care unit. Am J Health- Syst Pharm. 58:497—503.

Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain (2006). Guidance on recording interventions. The Pharmaceutical Journal 276: 517-518.

Merriam-Webster (2015). Webster(2015). English Dictionary. An Encyclopedia Britannica Company . Accessed August 15, 2018.

National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities (2009). Pharmacy Care Plans — Documentation. Accessed June 15, 2015.

Bayliff C and Bajcar J (1997). Direct Patient Care Curriculum - Module 5: Documentation. Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists. Accessed at:

Adje AA and Erhun WO (2016). Assessment of the documentation of pharmaceutical care activities among community pharmacists in Ibadan. West African Journal of Pharmacy. 27(1);118-125.

Mackinnon GE and Mackinnon NJ (2008). Documentation of Pharmacy Services. The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. 34-46. Guirquis LM

LeeS (2003). Patient assessment and documentation integrated in community practice: chat, check, and chart. J Am Pharm Assoc 52(6):e241-51.

Brock KA, Casper KA, Green TR and Perderson CA(2006). Documentation of patient care services in a community pharmacy. J. Am. Pharm Assoc. 46(3):378-384.

Ishmail A (2015). Evaluating Pharmaceutical care documentation among pharmacists in Nigeria.

Ogbonna BO, Ezenduka CC, Enede U and Oparah AC (2015). Pharmaceutical care documentation in two tertiary health care facilities in south eastern Nigeria. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.4(2): 53-62.

Ogbonna B, Ezenduka C, Soni J and 0parah AC (2015). Limitations to the dynamics of pharmaceutical care practice among community pharmacists in Enugu urban, southeast Nigeria. Inteqrated Pharmacy Research and Practice. 2015 (4): 49-55.

Dunkin J and Dumont Z(2013). Documenting pharmacy interventions in a busy dispensary. Canadian Pharmacists Association Webinar. Documentinqlnterventions.pdf. AccessedMarch17,2019.

Okonta J.M, Okonta EP and Ofoegbu TC (2012). Barriers to implementation of pharmaceutical care by pharmacists in Nsukka and Enugu Metropolis of Enugu State. Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy. 3(2):295-298

World Population Review (2019). Lagos Population 2019. Accessed July 2, 2019.

Lagos Ministry of Science and Technology (2019). About Lagos.https://laqosstate.qov.nq/about-laqos/. Accessed July 9, 2019.

Peterson G, Tenni P, Jackson S, Bereznicki L, Hughes J, Kong D, Doran S, Williams M, Curtain C, Hughes J, Ellerton R and Bindoff I (2007). Documenting clinical interventions in CPs: PROMISeIII Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. Full Final Report. Accessed February 17, 2015.

Williams M (2013). Factors influencing the performance and documentation of clinical interventions by Australian community pharmacists. A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Health Science, University of Tasmania in fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy University of Tasmania (November).

Overhage JM, Lukes A(1999). Practical, reliable, comprehensive method for characterizing Pharmacists' clinical activities. American Journal of Health - System Pharmacy. 56:2444-2449.

Lau A, Balen RM, Lam R and Malyuk, DL (2001). Using a personal digital assistant to document clinical pharmacy services in an intensive care unit. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 58: 1229-1232.

Youngmee K, Gregory S (2003). Pharmacist intervention documentation in US health care systems. Hosp Pharm. 38:1141—7.

Erah PO (2003). The changing roles of pharmacists in hospital and community pharmacy practice in Nigeria. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research.2 (2): 195-196.

Buari BS and Aina AB (2017). Evaluation of Documentation of Patient Medication Records in Community Pharmacies in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria: A before and after study (short Communication). The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy. 51(2): 39 - 43.