Piroxicam-Loaded Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System


  • Zwanden S. Yahaya Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,
  • Avosuahi R. Oyi Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,
  • Teryila S. Allagh Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,
  • Abdulrahman Abdulsamad Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,


sesame seeds, piroxicam, self-emulsifying, anti-inflammatory


Background: A self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) is an oral lipid dosage form for improving the biopharmaceutical performance of hydrophobic drugs. SEDDS are able to self-emulsify rapidly in the gastrointestinal fluids under the influence of gentle agitation provided by peristaltic and other movements of the gastro intestinal tract to produce ultrafine oil-in-water emulsion, thereby providing a large interfacial area for enhancement in both the rate and the extent of drug absorption. Objective: This work aimed to formulate piroxicam, a poorly water-soluble drug into a self-emulsifying drug delivery system using a natural lipophile (N-L) (crude oil) from pressed sesame seeds and to compare it with using labrafac CC as the oil phase.

Methodology: Using a natural lipophile (N-L) and labrafac CC as the oil phase, Coliphor HS-15 or Cremophor EL as the surfactant and polyethylene glycol-400 as the co-surfactant, pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were generated following phase titration studies. The proportion of oil, surfactant and co-surfactant that can result in stable, maximum self-emulsification was selected, loaded with piroxicam and characterized with respect to percentage drug loading efficiency (%DLE), emulsification ti me, stability, infinite aqueous diluti on, post-diluti on drug precipitation, globule size and polydispersity index (PDI). The in vitro drug release rate of the optimal formulation was investigated using a polycarbonate dialysis membrane and it's in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema in adult wistar rats.

Results: The optimized formulation consisted of 30 % oil, 56 % surfactant and 14 % co-surfactant, it gave an emulsification time of 6.0 s, had a % DLE of 91.1, a mean globule size of 32.0 nm, PDI of 0.175, released > 95.0 % of the drug within 20 min while the pure drug showed only 13.8 % drug release over a period of 1 h and demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) higher anti-inflammatory activity than the unformulated drug.

Conclusion: The developed SEDDS highlight the potential applications of the indigenous natural lipophile in the development of colloidal drug carriers for biopharmaceutical performance enhancement of piroxicam.

Author Biographies

Zwanden S. Yahaya, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kaduna State University, Kaduna - Nigeria

Avosuahi R. Oyi, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria

Teryila S. Allagh, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria

Abdulrahman Abdulsamad, Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria


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How to Cite

S. Yahaya, Z. ., R. Oyi, A. ., S. Allagh, T. ., & Abdulsamad, A. . (2019). Piroxicam-Loaded Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 53(1). Retrieved from https://psnnjp.org/index.php/home/article/view/52