Retrospective Study on the Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Bacterial Isolates in Patients with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media at the National Ear Care Centre Kaduna, Nigeria
Keywords:antimicrobial sensitivity, antimicrobial resistance, Otitis Media, Chronic Suppurative
Background: The management of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media primarily employs the use of antimicrobial agents. In light of varying susceptibility of the infective organisms associated with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media to antimicrobials; with respect to geography, patient peculiarities and rise in antimicrobial resistance, it is important to study these patterns of susceptibility/resistance to aid in rational use of antimicrobials. Knowing these patterns would help curtail excessive (most times, unjustififiable) use of antimicrobials, leading to reduced side effffects and cost. Hence, this study is aimed at studying these patterns at the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria.
Methods: The study was conducted in the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna. It involved a retrospective review of Culture and sensitivity results of patients across all age groups who presented to the National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, within a period of 2 years (February 2018 – January 2020). Total number of 315 cases identifified, with 253 case fifiles retrieved. Sensitivity data (for cases with such) were extracted and entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 for descriptive analysis.
Results: Of the 315 patients who presented with CSOM, only 253 (80.32%) case fifiles were accounted for. Patient ages ranges from 0.2 years to 78 years (Mean age 22.8 years), prevalence highest amongst age group 0-5 years (n=69, 21.9%). Clinical Isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=32, 50.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=20, 31.25%), Streptococcus specie (n=5, 7.81%), Candida specie (n=3, 4.69%), Proteus specie (n=2, 3.13%), Klebsiella specie (n=1, 1.56%) and Escherichia coli (n=1, 1.56%); Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas specie, Streptococcus specie, Proteus specie and Candida specie isolates were found to predominate in male. Antibiotic sensitivity was greatest with the Quinolones (89.4%), amongst all the recommended antimicrobials for treating Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, which are involved in this study.
Conclusion: This study showed that both gram positive and gram negative bacteria are signifificantly involved in the aetiology of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media with single bacteria specie involved in majority of cases. Treatment is best guided by Culture and sensitivity data. However, the broad spectrum antibiotics (Quinolones) are the best option for empirical treatment.
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