Medication-related problems among adults with chronic kidney disease in Southwest, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study


  • Alexander A. Akinola Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Arinola E. Joda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Roseline I. Aderemi-Williams Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria
  • Christiana O. Amira Department of Medicine, Nephrology Unit, College of Medicine University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria


Medication-related problems, Chronic kidney disease, Outpatients, Nigeria


Background: There is a growing population of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a high burden of comorbidities and complications that require multiple medications which puts them at risk of medication-related problems (MRPs). This study aims to identify and describe the types of MRPs in CKD patients.

Methods: Current medical records of CKD patients attending the renal clinic of a tertiary hospital in Lagos were reviewed to retrieve data on patient demographics, diagnosis, and medication prescribed. The identified MRPs were categorized using the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe classification of drug-related problem tool (PCNE DRP). Multivariate regression was utilized to assess the association between the dependent (MRPs) and independent variables (number of comorbidities, doses per day, medications, age, and stage of CKD). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: MRPs were identified and categorized in 89 patients (1.54 ± 0.66 MRPs/patient). The prevalent MRPs identified were drug use problems (38.4%), adverse drug reactions (16.2%), drug choice problems (14.1%) and dosing problems (12.1%). The odds of identifying MRPs increased with number of comorbidities [AOR 3.71 (95% CI 1.15-11.98); P<0.002], number of medications [OR 4.03(95% CI 1.53-10.65); P <0.0001], and number of doses per day [AOR 4.02 (95% CI 1.49-10.89); P <0.0001].

Conclusion: Medication-Related Problems in CKD patients are high, mandating the need for scheduled review by hospital pharmacists to identify and make interventions with the knowledge of the attending clinicians. 


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How to Cite

Akinola, A. A., Joda, A. E., Aderemi-Williams, R. I., & Amira, C. O. (2023). Medication-related problems among adults with chronic kidney disease in Southwest, Nigeria: A Retrospective Study: The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 57(1), 410–420. Retrieved from

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