Bacteriological examination and potassium bromate analysis of bread samples from selected retail outlets in two locations south west Nigeria

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Olufemi Lionel Okunye
Idowu Philip Adegboyega
Okanlawon Babatunde Meshach
Akpotu Mark Ovuakporaye
Ike Williams


Background: Bread is a staple food prepared from dough of flour and water, usually by baking. It is one of the oldest man-made foods consumed by all socio-economic groups. This study was carried out to evaluate the bacteriological profiles and investigate the potassium bromated additives in bread from retail outlets in south west Nigeria.

Methods: Bread samples homogenates were examined by standard plate count method on different culture media for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus, Esherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Penicillium spp. And Rhizophus spp were also analyzed for the presence of potassium bromate by spectrophotometry. Potassium bromated in the bread samples was quantitively and qualitatively analyzed using spectrometric determination of bromated in bread.

Results: All the 10 samples were found to contain bacteria and molds in varied proportions. Average counts of the isolates for both packed and unpacked bread samples; Staphylococcus aureus,(2.6×104 cfu/g): (4.0× 105 cfu/g), Escherichia coli 1.08× 103 cfu/g : 1.66× 105 cfu/ ) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.79× 102 cfu/g): (1.40× 105 cfu/g), Penicillium spp (1.92 × 104 cfu/g): (2.74× 105 cfu/g) and Rhizopus (1.92× 103 cfu/g): (2.71× 105 cfu/g)respectively while the bromate levels ranged from0.02 ± 0.05 ppm to 9.33 ± 0.30 ppm were, an indication of not all bakeries following the standard regulation required by NAFDAC for bread production.

Conclusion: The presence of food poisoning bacteria in the bread examined could be traced to raw material quality, sanitary status of equipment, handlers hygiene, environment and storage condition while the amount of potassium bromate content found could threaten consumers' life when consumed regularly and hence, the needs for strict monitoring by the food and drug regulatory agency.

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Lionel Okunye, O. ., Philip Adegboyega, I. ., Babatunde Meshach, . O. ., Mark Ovuakporaye, A. ., & Williams, I. . (2022). Bacteriological examination and potassium bromate analysis of bread samples from selected retail outlets in two locations south west Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 55(2), 71–76 | Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Olufemi Lionel Okunye, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Idowu Philip Adegboyega, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria.

Okanlawon Babatunde Meshach, Department of Medical Laboratory Science,

College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomosho, Osun State, Nigeria.

Akpotu Mark Ovuakporaye, Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology,

Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Ike Williams, Department of Microbiology,

College of Biological Sciences, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.


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