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Background: Ficus capensis leaves extract has been used in traditional medicine over the years by Middle belt ethnic group in Nigeria to treat a wide range of diseases and also serve as food.
Materials and Methods: Genotoxic potentials, cytotoxic effects and nutritional composition of the ethanol extract of the leaves were investigated using Allium cepa assay and proximate analysis respectively. The Allium cepa mitotic inhibitory activities of the extract at varying concentrations of 10mg/mL, 20mg/mL, 50mg/mL and 100 mg/mL was investigated. Methotrexate and Distilled water were considered as standard drug and control respectively. All experiments were carried out in triplicates.
Results: Proximate analysis result revealed crude fibre, carbohydrates and proteins as the imost abundant macro nutrients with percentage composition of 37.2 ± 0.08%, 30 ± 0.02% and 14.70 ± 0.08% respectively. Also, a significant (P<0.05) dose dependent decrease in mitotic index of the extracts as compared to the control was observed. Chromosomal aberrations scored were stickiness, lagging, bridges, vagrant chromosome and micro-nucleated interphase cells were also observed.
Conclusion: This study confirmed that although the ethanol leaves extract of Ficus capensis is a good dietary source of carbohydrates, crude fibre and proteins, it exhibits significant mito-depressive and genotoxic effects at all the tested dosage.
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