Phytochemical and Heavy Metal Screening of Fura da Nono, Ciklavit®, Katoka Mixtures®, and Yoyo Bitters®



Fura da Nono, Ciklavit®, Katoka Mixtures®, Yoyo Bitters®, Hazard Index


Background: Evaluation of the phytochemicals and heavy metals contained in four commonly consumed beverage and herbal products in Nigeria, was investigated. This was to ascertain the health benefits as well as potential for toxicity that may be associated with the consumption of these products.

Methods: The samples studied are Fura da Nono, Ciklavit®, Katoka Mixtures® and Yoyo Bitters®. The phytochemical screening of each product was done using standard procedures. The heavy metals screening was done using Agilent®720 Inductively Coupled Plasma -Optical Emission Spectroscopy machine (ICP-OES). The Hazard quotient and Index were assessed using appropriate equations in line with United States Environmental ProtectionAgency (USEPA).

Results: All phytochemicals tested were found in Fura da Nono except Steroids and Terpenoids.Also, all the tested phytochemicals were detected in Ciklavit® except Alkaloids and Phlobatannins. Both Katoka Mixtures® and Yoyo Bitters® contained all other phytochemicals except Phlobatannins. Quantitatively, Fura da Nono was high in Cardiac glycosides, and Ciklavit® was found to be high in Flavonoid content. Both Katoka Mixtures® and Yoyo Bitters® are high in Phenols. The results of the heavy metal analysis revealed different concentrations (ppm) of arsenic, mercury, lead, cadmium, zinc, manganese, copper and nickel in the four products. Arsenic was not detected only in Fura da Nono. The heavy metal concentrations obtained were all within WHO maximum permissible limits. Further analysis for potential non-carcinogenic health risk using Hazard quotient on each of the four toxic heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, lead and cadmium) and Hazard Index (HI) on the same toxic heavy metals revealed that by the United States Environmental ProtectionAgency (USEPA) threshold value of HI ≤1, Yoyo Bitters® (0.4684) and Ciklavit® (0.7870) had the lower and safer values for combined heavy metal risk while Katoka Mixtures® (0.9908) and Fura da Nono (1.4144) had the highest.

Conclusion: The phytochemical screening of the investigated products showed that the commonly consumed food drink and herbal products, are rich in phytochemicals. Even though the heavy metal screening indicates a fairly positive safety margin for three of the products. Caution should therefore be exercised in the use of these products.


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How to Cite

Akinleye, M. O., Emerole, P. I., Adesegun, O. S., Adeyemi, D. K., & Martins, B. C. (2023). Phytochemical and Heavy Metal Screening of Fura da Nono, Ciklavit®, Katoka Mixtures®, and Yoyo Bitters®: The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 57(2), 719–729. Retrieved from