Prevalence and correlates of burnout among pharmacists in varying areas of practice in South East Nigeria

Main Article Content

Deborah Oyine Aluh
Daniel Ifeanyichukwu Agu
Abdulmuminu Isah
Chigozie Gloria AneneOkeke


Background: Burnout has received a lot of attention in high-income countries with awareness and intervention programs designed to cope with burnout symptoms, however, it has not received the needed attention in low-income settings such as Nigeria. The current study aims to assess the prevalence and correlates of burn out among pharmacists in varying practice in South-East Nigeria.

Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was carried out among pharmacists in academic, community pharmacy, and hospital settings in Enugu State, Nigeria. The abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory (aMBI) tool was used to assess burnout. Descriptive statistics, Spearman's correlation, and independent sample t-tests were carried out.

Results: The overall response rate was 55.95% (n = 235). Low scores of Emotional exhaustions (Academic- 4.81 ± 3.94, community- 5.45 ± 3.96, hospital -7.19 ±4.83), Depersonalizations (Academic- 1.28 ± 2.52, community- 1.17 ± 2.03, hospital -1.36 ± 2.68) and high scores of PA (Academic- 13.74 ± 3.91, community-15.64 ± 3.07, hospital -14.25 ± 4.11). For academic pharmacists, Satisfaction with renumeration (r = -0.453, p= 0.001) was associated with burnout. Marital status (r = -0.321, p = 0.008) was associated with burnout for community pharmacists while, age (r = - 0.276, p = 0.003) was associated with burnout for Hospital pharmacists.

Conclusion: The prevalence of burnout among Pharmacists in the academic setting, community and hospital settings was low. Age, marital status, and satisfaction with remuneration were common factors associated with burn out among pharmacists. Culturally sensitive strategies to proactively develop and implement interventions to minimize pharmacist burnout are needed.

Article Details

How to Cite
Oyine Aluh, D. ., Ifeanyichukwu Agu, . D. ., Isah, . A. ., & Gloria AneneOkeke, C. . (2022). Prevalence and correlates of burnout among pharmacists in varying areas of practice in South East Nigeria. The Nigerian Journal of Pharmacy, 56(1), 56–64 | Retrieved from
Author Biographies

Deborah Oyine Aluh, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management

University of Nigeria Nsukka. Enugu State. Nigeria

Daniel Ifeanyichukwu Agu, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management.

University of Nigeria Nsukka. Enugu State. Nigeria

Abdulmuminu Isah, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management.

University of Nigeria Nsukka. Enugu State. Nigeria

Chigozie Gloria AneneOkeke, Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management.

University of Nigeria Nsukka. Enugu State. Nigeria


WHO (2019).| Burn-out an “occupational phenomenon”: International Classification of Diseases. WHO

Maslach C, Jackson S, Schwab R (1996). Maslach burnout inventory-educators survey (MBI-ES). MBI Manual, 3rd ed.

Friganović A, Kovačević I, Ilić B, Žulec M, Krikšić V, Bile CG (2017) Healthy settings in hospital - How to prevent burnout syndrome in nurses: Literature review. Acta Clin Croat.

Dewa CS, Loong D, Bonato S, Thanh NX, Jacobs P (2014) How does burnout affect physician productivity? A systematic literature review. BMC Health Serv Res.

Shanafelt TD, Balch CM, Bechamps GJ, Russell T, Dyrbye L, Satele D, Collicott P, Novotny PJ, Sloan J, Freischlag JA (2009) Burnout and career satisfaction among american surgeons. Ann Surg.

Shanafelt T, Sloan J, Satele D, Balch C (2011) Why do surgeons consider leaving practice? J Am Coll Surg. 6

Johnson RE, Ried LD, Robertson N (1987) Self-Reported Burnout Among HMO Pharmacists. J Pharm Mark Manage.

Lin PY, Wang JY, Shih DP, Kuo HW, Liang WM (2019) The interaction effects of burnout and job support on peptic ulcer disease (PUD) among firefighters and policemen. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

Chang ML (2009) An appraisal perspective of teacher burnout: Examining the emotional work of teachers. Educ Psychol Rev.

The Lancet (2019) Physician burnout: a global crisis. Lancet.

Pindar, S. K., Coker, A. O., Wakil, M. A., & Morakinyo O (2012) Comparison of Burnout Syndrome Among Clinical and Non-Clinical Staff of Two Tertiary Health Institutions in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Transnatl. J. Sci. Technol.

Ogunsuji OO, Adebayo O, Olaopa O, et al (2019) Burnout among Nigerian Doctors: A Systematic Review | Nigerian Medical Practitioner. In: Niger. M e d . P r a c t . Accessed 10 Sep 2020

Lasebikan VO, Oyetunde MO (2012) Burnout among Nurses in a Nigerian General Hospital: Prevalence and Associated Factors. ISRN Nurs.

Olley BO (2003) A comparative study of burnout syndrome among health professionals in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci.

Khamisa N, Oldenburg B, Peltzer K, Ilic D (2015) Work related stress, burnout, job satisfaction and general health of nurses. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

West CP, Huschka MM, Novotny PJ, Sloan JA, Kolars JC, Habermann TM, Shanafelt TD (2006) Association of perceived medical errors with resident distress and empathy: A prospective longitudinal study. J Am Me d Assoc.

Jackson R. (1993) An Analysis of Burnout among School of Pharmacy Faculty. Am. J. Pharm. Educ. 57(1) 9-17.ISSN-0002-9459.

Auta A, Strickland-Hodge B, Maz J (2016) Challenges to clinical pharmacy practice in Nigerian hospitals: a qualitative exploration of stakeholders' views. J Eval Clin Pract.

Dubale BW, Friedman LE, Chemali Z, Denninger JW, Mehta DH, Alem A, Fricchione GL, Dossett ML, Gelaye B (2019) Systematic review of burnout among healthcare providers in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Public Health.

Maslach C, Jackson SE, Leiter MP (1997) Maslach Burnout Inventory: Third edition. Eval Stress AB Resour. 21. Schaufeli WB, Van Dierendonck D (1993) The construct validity of two burnout measures. J

Organ Behav

Riley MR, Mohr DC, Waddimba AC (2018) The reliability and validity of three-item screening measures for burnout: Evidence from groupemployed health care practitioners in upstate New York. Stress Heal.

Maslach C, Schaufeli WB, Leiter MP (2001) Job Burnout. Annu Rev Psychol.

El-Ibiary SY, Yam L, Lee KC (2017) Assessment of burnout and associated risk factors among pharmacy practice faculty in the United States. Am J Pharm Educ.

Calgan Z, Aslan D, Yegenoglu S (2011) Community pharmacists' burnout levels and related factors: An example from Turkey. Int J Clin Pharm.

Elbarazi I, Loney T, Yousef S, Elias A (2017) Prevalence of and factors associated with burnout among health care professionals in Arab countries: A systematic review. BMC Health Serv Res.

Lim WY, Ong J, Ong S, Hao Y, Abdullah HR, Koh DL, Mok USM (2019) The Abbreviated Maslach Burnout Inventory Can Overestimate Burnout: A Study of Anesthesiology Residents. J Clin Med.

Zombobah FG (2020) Suffering and smiling: the nigerian experience. Igwebuike An African J Arts Humanit 6:2020

Toker B (2011) Burnout Among University Academicians: an Empirical Study on the Universities of Turkey. Doğuş Üniversitesi Derg.

Azeem SM, Nazir NA (2008) A study of job burnout among university teachers. Psychol Dev Soc J.

Lee P, Miller MT, Kippenbrock TA, Rosen C, Emory J (2017) College nursing faculty job satisfaction and retention: A national perspective. Journal of Professional Nursing. 33(4);261-266

Most read articles by the same author(s)